02 August 2014

Lady Has Longevity Genes - Alice Verona Kosier Gleason

By Pamela Pattison Lash

I discovered a newspaper article and picture of a lady who celebrated her 100th birthday.  I was amazed at the information given in this article and want to share this with you.  I had worked on a divorce detailing of her father so I had a bit of material to start with but I added some more data to the lady with the longevity genes.

Alice Verona Kosier Gleason (17 July 1857 – 8 October 1957 Fayette, Gorham Twp, Fulton Co, OH; buried in West Franklin Cem, Franklin Twp, Fulton Co, OH)

Bryan Times, 26 July 1957 p1 c6

Mrs. Alice V Gleason, who recently celebrated her 100th birthday at Fayette (OH), has an unusually large number of living descendants, 48, and many of them live in this area.

She has 3 sons and 2 daughters, (R) Charles Gleason, Wakeman, Ross Gleason, Fayette with whom she lives with Firman Gleason, Lyons, Mrs. Jerome Kline (Willobelle), Fayette, and Mrs George Robison (Juanita Wyonna), Fayette.

She also had two daughters and one son who passed away, Mrs Gar (Richard Lagar) Gamble (Rosamond), Mrs William Gamble (Edna Luella Gleason) and George Gleason.

There are 20 grandchildren, and 23 great grandchildren giving Mrs. Gleason something of a record in this area.

Mrs. Gleason was born in Hamer, Williams Co, OH, July 17, 1857, the daughter of M/M Jonathan Kosier.  Her husband Allison Gleason, died in 1948 at the age of 89.  He was a farmer and they lived to celebrate their 68th wedding anniversary.  Much of their life having been spent in Williams County, while she has lived in her present home since 1899.

Her Obit - Bryan Times, 10 October 1957 p1

Alice Verona Kosier, was the daughter of Jonathan Kosier, Jr and Catherine Rhodes, both natives of PA with Jonathan taking up the vocation of blacksmith; later Jonathan would become a Civil War veteran, serving in Co F 182nd OVI with the rank of corporal. – see divorce detailing for more information on Jonathan Kosier.

In the 1860 Millcreek Twp, Wms Co, OH federal census, p123b, one finds the Kosier family as Jonathan 27 PA, blacksmith; Catherine 27 PA; I.M. (male) 4 OH; A.B. (female) 2 OH; and twins, Joseph and Josephine 11/12 OH.

By the 1870 Millcreek Twp federal census p29, the family had grown as follows: Jonathan 37 PA blacksmith; Catherine 37 PA; Alexander 14 OH; Alice Verona 12 OH; Joseph 10 OH; Josephine 10 OH; Rosanna 8 OH; George W. 6 OH; Cora 4 OH; and Samuel Kosier 24 PA, probably Jonathan's younger brother.  Another child, Lilly M. (b. 29 July 1870; d. 19 Oct 1871), was the first of the family to be buried in the West Franklin Cem, Fulton Co, OH. 

Mother Catherine Kosier who passed away on 29 Sept 1873 (Wms Co, OH Deaths, V1 p23) joined her.  Jonathan was listed in the 1874 Wms Co, OH Atlas as the owner of several lots in the village of Hamer in Millcreek Twp.

Alice Verona Kosier married Alson Gleason in Williams Co, OH on 27 August 1879 (Marriages V4 p642); Alson or Allison was the s/o James Morrison Gleason and Susan Mary Dietrick

Their children:
(Mildred Rosemond) Rosa Oct 1880
Charles Leland – 8 Jul 1882, West Unity, Brady Twp, Williams Co, OH
Willobelle – 5 December 1883, Williams Co, OH
Edna – 6 May 1886, Williams Co, OH
George R May 1893
Ross Carelton 6 Dec 1897
Juanita Wyonna 7 May 1900
Firman Summerville 24 Nov 904

1900 Gorham, Fulton, Ohio; Roll: 1270; Page: 14B; Enumeration District: 0010; FHL microfilm: 1241270.
h/h 361/370 Gleason, Alson 41 (May 1859) mar 20Y OH-NY-PA farmer
Alice V wife 42 (July 1857) 6/6 ch OH-PA-PA
Rosa dau 19 (Oct 1880) OH-OH-OH
Charles L son 17 (July 1882) OH-OH-OH
Willa B dau 16 (Dec 1883) OH-OH-OH
Edna 14 dau (May 1886) OH-OH-OH
George R son  7 (May 1893) OH-OH-OH
Ross 2 son (Dec 1897) OH-OH-OH

1910 Gorham, Fulton, Ohio; Roll: T624_1184; Page: 2A; Enumeration District: 0011; FHL microfilm: 1375197.
h/h 33/33 Gleason, Allison 50 OH-NY-PA farmer mar 30Y
Alice 52 wife OH-PA-PA 8/8 ch
Edna L dau 23 music teacher
George R son 19
Ross C son 12
Juanita dau 7
Firman  son 6

Alice can also be found in Gorham, Fulton Co, OH federal census records for 1920, 1930, and 1940.

21 June 2014

WCGS Banquet - June 2014

By Pamela Pattison Lash

Our WCGS End-of-the-Year Banquet celebrated our passion for genealogy.  Here is a synopsis of the event, reported by Pat Goebel, Co-VP:

The 31st Annual Banquet for the Williams County Genealogical Society was held June 16, 2014 at the Moose Lodge in Bryan, OH. The guest speaker was Eric Rotsinger, a living historian, portraying the Samuel Clemens, better known as Mark Twain. Eric started in 1997 portraying Mark Twain. He has worked on getting into Mark Twain’s head, only to find Mark Twain was a character created and marketed image to sell books and show tickets. Behind the mask lies Samuel Clemens, a man as bright and dark, as ridiculous and somber, as calculating and na├»ve. Eric brought this man in all of his complicated simplicity to life.

Kim Smith, the First Families of Williams County Chairperson, introduced three new members to the First Families; bring the total number of members to 210. They are Jeffrey W. Thompson, surname: Thompson; Dan Clark, surnames: Armstrong, Clark, Mills, Stubbs, Wilbur; and Kim Brown, surname: Yates.

Pam Lash, outgoing President, presented Alice Shaffer, one of the founding members of the society, who is retiring from the board, with a gift in appreciation for her many years of service, advice and leadership. She then presented the new board: Ronda Garbin, Newsletter Editor; Carolyn Pfiester, Historian/ Board Assistant; Marty Richie, Webmaster; Kim Smith, First Families/Williams Co.; Nancy Chamberlain, Membership Assistant; Fred Strobel, Membership; Pam Lash Publications; Melody Turner, Bookkeeper; Jane Huffman, Treasurer/Librarian; Alice Meuleman, Secretary; Mary Alice Roth, Vice-President; and Patricia Goebel, President.

Patricia then presented Pam Lash, who also was one of the founders of the society, with a gift of appreciations for her many years of expertise, wisdom and leadership. The society has grown and flourished with both Alice and Pam’s leadership.

The next meeting will be in September. Have a great summer and Keep Researching!
The purpose of WCGS is the preservation of county records and family research.  Monthly meetings are held on the second Monday of each month, excluding July and August, at 6:30pm, in the conference room of the West Annex of the Bryan Public Library. The public is invited for all the meetings.

For further information concerning WCGS, visit the Website at www.wcgs-ogs.com or write to WCGS, P.O. Box 293, Bryan, Ohio 43506.

27 May 2014

Emma Bice Shear Case v Loren E Case, Divorce 1901

By Pamela Pattison Lash

Bryan Democrat, 4 July 1901
Emma Case v Loren Case; action for divorce; petition filed 27 June 1901 on grounds of extreme cruelty and gross neglect of duty.

Loren E Case, son of Job B Case and Estella Smith married Emma J Shear, daughter of David Bice and Rilla Snowden on 5 April 1900 in Williams Co, OH (Marriage V8 p134)
Loren was 37 on 8 Sept 1899; he was married once before.  She was born and a resident of Shiawassee, MI where he was a carpenter.

The Bride:
Emma J Shear was 21 on 8 Dec 1899; she was previously married and divorced to Shear.  She lived in Pioneer, OH.

1880 Springfield, Allen, Indiana; Roll: 264; Family History Film: 1254264; Page: 229C; Enumeration District: 104; Image: 0280.
h/h 182/183 Bice, David 35 OH-CT-NY farmer
Rilla wife 20 IN-CT-NY
Emma dau 5M – Dec IN-OH-IN

Rilla Snowden Bice died in Allen Co, IN on 30 May 1882; David Bice was married three times:
1. Mahalia Donat, 13 Nov 1864, Paulding Co, OH
2. Rilla Snowden, c1879 IN
3. Amy Wallace, 10 Jan 1883, Allen Co, IN; divorced 13 Oct 1890

David Bice died on 11 Sept 1898 in Allen Co, IN

1900 Madison, Williams, Ohio; Roll: 1332; Page: 12B; Enumeration District: 0107; FHL microfilm: 1241332.
h/h 288/288 Shear, Emma 20 (Oct 1879) OH-OH-OH servant, widow, 1/1 ch
Living with Charles Evers, a widower with 2 sons

Emma married Loren E Case, 5 April 1900 and divorced him cJuly 1901

Emma Shear married Charles Evers, 30 April 1902 in Williams Co, OH (Marriage V8 p359); he 39 farmer; she’s 25 divorced once (married once); he’s been married twice before; he’s the son of William Evers and Catherine Gorrell; she’s daughter of David Bice and Rilla Snowden; both residents of Pioneer, OH; note her name is Emma Sheer

Charles Evers died 3 Dec 1939 in Pioneer, OH and was buried in Floral Grove Cem, Pioneer, OH; married to Emma Evers; find-a-grave says he was married to Ellie Amy Utter, Hannah Anderson Lambright, and Emma Anderson Sheer.

Emma Evers died on 4 June 1971 and was buried in Floral Grove Cem, Pioneer, OH; she has a daughter Etta Ruth Shear who married a Cousine and lived in Florida??
Leader Enterprise (Montpelier, OH), 7 June 1971 p2 – obit of Emma J Evers
Bryan Times (Bryan, OH), 4 June 1971 p3 – daughter Ruth Lawter of Miami, FL and one granddaughter

The Groom:
Loren E Case (28 Nov 1862 MI – 4 July 1914, Laingsburg, Sciota Twp, Shiawassee Co, MI)
s/o Job B Case of NY and Ester Stella Smith of NY; carpenter, widower

He was married three times:
1. Lena Hickey, 6 June 1886, Swartz Creek, Genesee Co, MI; she died 24 May 1898, Durand, Shiawassee Co, MI; 5 children
2. Emma J Bice Shear, 5 April 1900, Williams Co, OH; divorced cJuly 1901
3. Sarah Hotalling bet 1901-1903; 2 children

1870 Chesaning, Saginaw, Michigan; Roll: M593_701; Page: 108A; Image: 224; Family History Library Film: 552200.
Case, Loren 7 MI living with parents Job and Estella and brother Leon.

1880 Victor, Clinton, Michigan; Roll: 577; Family History Film: 1254577; Page: 507B; Enumeration District: 056; Image: 0196.
Case, Loren E 17 MI living with parents and brother

1900 Sciota, Shiawassee, Michigan; Roll: 744; Page: 7A; Enumeration District: 0096; FHL microfilm: 1240744.
Loren’s children are living with his parents, Job and Estella Case and his brother leon

1910 Hagar, Berrien, Michigan; Roll: T624_638; Page: 14A; Enumeration District: 0074; FHL microfilm: 1374651.
h/h 234/236 Case, Loran 50 MI-NY-MI mar 2x mar 11Y
Sadie wife 47 mar 2x 1/1ch along with children

05 May 2014

WCGS April Meeting and Upcoming Events

By Pamela Pattison Lash

Co-VP Pat Goebel has a message of interest for those who wish to attend the May and June meetings of the Williams County Genealogical Society. Here's what Pat has to report:

The Williams County Genealogical Society held their April meeting in the Harmon Room of the West Annex to the Bryan Public Library. The guest speaker was Amanda Wells-Blackman. Amanda gave an outstanding presentation about how to identify the era in which a picture was taken. She gave a very informative handout to follow while she shared photos and deciphered how to identify the era. Her method is first identify the type of photograph, then date the photographer’s years of operation, if name is noted, and then identify and date the fashions in the photographs. Members had an opportunity to try and date several photos using the method above.

The May meeting will be held the THIRD Monday of the month, May 19, 2014, 6:30pm in the Harmon Room. The guest speakers are Mr. and Mrs. Jim Wells. They will be talking and sharing photos of cemeteries their society has repaired and uprighted. They will share before and after photos of cemeteries that have improved.

BANQUET:  The 31st Annual Banquet will be held on the June 16, 2014 the Bryan Moose Lodge, Bryan, Ohio at 6:30 pm. Reservations must be made by Wednesday, June 11, 2014 with Jane Huffman, 419-636-6734, Local History and Genealogy Annex extension. The cost is $18 per person. The menu is Baked Swiss Steak, Lasagna, Mashed Potatoes with Gravy, Peas, Tossed Salad, Spice Cake, Brownies, and Beverage.

The guest speaker is Eric Rotsinger. He has been portraying Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) as a first person living historian for over 10 years. He is an actual relative of Twain’s. Eric truly brings this historic author and personality to life!

The purpose of WCGS is the preservation of county records and family research.  Monthly meetings are held on the second Monday of each month, excluding July and August, at 6:30pm, in the conference room of the West Annex of the Bryan Public Library. The public is invited for all the meetings.

For further information concerning WCGS, visit the Website at www.wcgs-ogs.com or write to WCGS, P.O. Box 293, Bryan Ohio 43506.

24 March 2014

WCGS March 2014 Meeting and the Upcoming April Meeting

By Pamela Pattison Lash

Our Co-VP, Pat Goebel, has a report to share on the March 2014 meeting and what's coming in April.  Here's what Pat has to report:

The Williams County Genealogical Society met in March to finish the DVD on Samuel Clemens. Mark Twain’s most famous books were  The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. He wrote 28 books and numerous short stories, letters and sketches. In 1870, Clemens married Olivia Langdon, and they had four children, one of whom died in infancy and two who died in their twenties. Their surviving child, Clara, lived to be 88, and had one daughter. Clara's daughter died without having any children, so there are no direct descendants of Samuel Clemens living. Our guest speaker at the June banquet is a descendant of Mr. Clemens. Come and find out how he is related.

 Next month, April 14, 2014, the society will meet in the Harmon Room of the West Annex to the Bryan Public Library at 6:30 pm. The guest speaker will be Amanda Wells Blackman from DeKalb County, Indiana. She will be talking about how to identify old photographs by looking at the different types of photos and the time period in which they were popular. Amanda will present how to identify and date photos by their use of clothes, hairstyles, jewelry, military medals, and props used the by photographer. Bring a photo or two that is 1920 or older for Amanda to identify.

The purpose of WCGS is the preservation of county records and family research.  Monthly meetings are held on the second Monday of each month, excluding July and August, at 6:30 pm, in the conference room of the West Annex of the Bryan Public Library. The public is invited for all the meetings.

For further information concerning WCGS, visit the Website at www.wcgs-ogs.com or write to WCGS, P.O. Box 293, Bryan, OH 43506.

23 March 2014

"But I'm Not Dead" - Curtis S. Garrison, CW Vet

By Pamela Pattison Lash

I’m sure you have heard of obituaries being written for a person who is very much alive.  If not, here’s the case of a man living in Williams County, Ohio who was given a nice obit; when he saw this, he was quick to correct the false impression of his demise – wouldn’t you?

This is what I first uncovered:

Bryan Democrat, 13 February 1890 p5 c3
Death of Curt Garrison
Report reaches here Tuesday of the death of Curtis S Garrison of Russian influenza at Edon.  Mr Garrison was born in Portage Co, O in 1835; was left an orphan at an early age; when eleven years old he began work on a canal; six years later he became a peddler; came to Williams Co and was engaged as a clerk in a store at Edgerton until 1869, excepting three months in 1861 which he served in the 14th Ohio under Col Jim Steadman – About 1870 he located at Edon, this county and soon won prominence as one of the most active businessmen in the western part of the county.  He was a genial gentleman and many warm friends will regret his early death.

Then I discovered this:

Bryan Democrat, 20 February 1890 p5 c2
Edon, Ohio 2-4-19
Dear Democrat, - In your issue of this week you write me a nice obituary and gave a short correct history of my life, for which I thank you, but I’m not dead yet, for which I am more than thankful, neither asleep but by the grace of God (and the skill of a physician) am doing well here.  One of my friends accuses me of getting this up to see what people would say of me after I was dead, but that’s not so.  What do I care, for if God is for me who can be against me!
Replying and Fraternally,
C S Garrison

From here I researched the man who was not dead yet!

Curtis S Garrison (July 1835 Portage Co, OH - Feb 1890, Edon, Florence Twp, Williams Co, OH or 27 May 1927, Rifle, Garfield Co, CO); died of Russian influenza; s/o Iliff Garrison (d 1848 Portage Co, OH) and Elizabeth Calvin (d 1843 Portage Co, OH)
Bryan Democrat, 13 Feb 1890 p5 c3
Bryan Democrat, 3 June 1927 p2 c4

4 November 1861, Lenawee Co, MI Curtis S Garrison married Elizabeth Curtis

Elizabeth Curtis (April/ September 1842 pos Otsego Co, NY - aft 1900); d/o David Curtis and Charlotte St John

Fred L 1867
Gracie 1874
Orson David 1876
Iliff C 8 Feb 1879 Edon, Florence Twp, Williams Co, OH

1850 Hudson, Lenawee Co, MI
Curtis, Elizabeth 8 NY living with parents and siblings

1860 Hudson, Lenawee, Michigan; Roll: M653_551; Page: 592; Image: 592; Family History Library Film: 803551.
Curtis, Elizabeth 18 NY living with parents and siblings

1850 Edinburg, Portage, Ohio; Roll: M432_722; Page: 222B; Image: 602.
Curtis Garrison 14 OH living with John and Sophronia Cope and his sister Charity Garrison

Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served in Organizations From the State of Ohio.
Affiliate Publication Number:            M552
Affiliate Film Number:            38
GS Film number:            0882251
Co C 14th Ohio Infantry – private; 3 month service 1861

1870 Florence, Williams, Ohio; Roll: M593_1282; Page: 70B; Image: 144; Family History Library Film: 552781.
Garrison CS 36 OH dry goods merchant
Elizabeth 28 MI
Frederick L 3 OH
Ulysses C 1 OH

1880 Eden, Williams, Ohio; Roll: 1077; Family History Film: 1255077; Page: 553A; Enumeration District: 008; Image: 0738.
Garrison, Curt S 44 OH-PA-PA merchant in general merchandise
Elizabeth wife 38 NY
Fred son 13 OH
Gracie dau 6 OH
Orson son 4 OH
Illiff son 1 OH
Bush, Jane 29 OH

1890 Veterans Schedule – 23 April 1861 to 13 Aug 1861 in Co C 14th Ohio Infantry, private, residing in Florence Twp, Williams Co, OH

21 Aug 1890 – invalid – CW service

1894 Michigan State Census – Village of Hillsdale – Curtis Garrison

1900 Hillsdale, Hillsdlae Co, MI
Garrison, Elizabeth 58 (Apr 1842) married 42 Y 6/4 ch
Illiff C son 21 OH-OH-NY music student

1900 Township 1, Maricopa, Arizona Territory; Roll: 46; Page: 21A; Enumeration District: 0032; FHL microfilm: 1240046.
Curtis Garrison 54 (July 1835) OH-VA-VA married, carpenter

Aug 14, 1900 to 8 June 1904 living in the National Home for Volunteer Soldiers, Curtis S Garrison: 696731 pension certificate
23 April 1861 Bryan, Oh to 13 Aug 1861 Toledo, OH; 5’4”, fair, can read and write, is religious Protestant, clerk, living in Sawtelle, CA, married, Elizabeth Garrison, wife, living in Hillsdale Co, MI

1910 Precinct 15, Garfield, Colorado; Roll: T624_120; Page: 6B; Enumeration District: 0047; FHL microfilm: 1374133.
Curtis Garrison 74 OH-OH-OH widower, farmer

1920 South Rifle, Garfield, Colorado; Roll: T625_164; Page: 10B; Enumeration District: 38; Image: 729.
Curtis S Garrison 84 OH-VA-VA widower, farmer

US Veterans Administration Payment Card – death 27 May 1927

13 March 2014

Alvin David Beggs - Civil War Soldier in Two Companies

By Pamela Pattison Lash

Just a tip if you are researching a Civil War soldier - it is possible that your person served in more than one company or regiment so be sure to explore all possibilities.  This is such an example of a man who served twice in two different companies:

Alvin David Beggs (March 1846 Trumbull Co, OH-9 Aug 1916, Ransom, Hillsdale Co, MI; buried in Oakwood Cem, Stryker, Springfield Twp, Williams Co, OH); s/o Joseph Beggs and Margaret Headley

22 Sept 1867, DeKalb Co, IN (Marriages p162) - Married Priscilla V Taylor

Priscilla V Taylor (March 1845 pos Mahoning Co, OH– 28 Mar 1901); d/o James B Taylor and Sarah Priscilla Hall

Jay Waldo or Walden (17 Sept 1869 Weldon, IL)
Clyde A (3 Sept 1871 IL)
Carrie c1874 IL
Cora c1874 IL

1850 Bazetta, Trumbull, Ohio; Roll: M432_733; Page: 458B; Image: 723.
Beggs, Joseph 30 blacksmith PA
Margaret 34 PA
Alvin 6 OH
Rocella 1 OH

1850 Goshen, Mahoning, Ohio; Roll: M432_707; Page: 557A; Image: 531.
Taylor, Priscilla 5 OH with parents James B and Sarah Taylor

1860 Newville, De Kalb, Indiana; Roll: M653_254; Page: 340; Image: 338; Family History Library Film: 803254.
Beggs, Joseph 39 PA blacksmith
Margaret 40 PA
Alvin 16 OH
Rocella 11 OH
Headley, Catherine 30 milliner OH

1860 Otsego Twp, Steuben Co, IN
Taylor, James B 39 merchant OH
Sarah P 43 PA
Priscilla 15 OH
William 13 OH
Candace 11 OH
And more siblings and others

Alvin D Beggs
Residence:            Indiana
Enlistment Date:            29 Aug 1862
Rank at enlistment:            Private
State Served:            Indiana
Survived the War?:            Yes
Service Record:            Enlisted in Company H, Indiana 88th Infantry Regiment on 29 Aug 1862.Mustered out on 09 Nov 1863.
Sources:            Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Indiana

Alvin D Beggs
Residence:            Indiana
Enlistment Date:            1 Nov 1864
Rank at enlistment:            Private
State Served:            Indiana
Survived the War?:            Yes
Service Record:            Enlisted in Company A, Indiana 13th Infantry Regiment on 12 Nov 1864.Mustered out on 13 Jun 1865.
Sources:            Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Indiana

History of DeKalb Co, IN, Bowman, p100 – Alvin D Beggs, Co A 13th Indiana Volunteer Infantry

9 Dec 1865 – CW pension (invalid)

1870 Farmer City, DeWitt, Illinois; Roll: M593_216; Page: 123A; Image: 252; Family History Library Film: 545715.
Beggs, Alvin D 26 OH teaching school
Precilla 25 OH
J Welden 10/12 IL

1880 Newville, De Kalb, Indiana; Roll: 273; Family History Film: 1254273; Page: 153D; Enumeration District: 086; Image: 0304.
Beggs, Alvin D 36 OH-PA-PA school teacher
Precilla 35 wife OH-OH-PA
Jay W son 10 IL
Clyde son 8 IL
Carrie dau 6 IL
Cora dau 6 IL

1883 Military Pensioners for Williams Co, OH – Alvin Beggs wounded in left ankle and right leg; Co A 13th Indiana Infantry

1890 Veterans Schedule – Alvin D Beggs, Springfield Twp, Williams Co, OH
Private, Co A 13th Indiana 11 Nov 1864 – 13 June 1865 – 6M 2D service – wounded at Ft Fisher, right knee and left ankle

1900 Stryker, Williams, Ohio; Roll: 1332; Page: 8B; Enumeration District: 0116; FHL microfilm: 1241332.
Beggs, Alvin D 54 (Mar 1846) OH-OH-OH
Percilla V wife 55 (Mar 1845) OH-OH-PA 6/4 ch
Clyde son and grandchildren Nellie and Leo

1910 Camden, Hillsdale, Michigan; Roll: T624_649; Page: 5B; Enumeration District: 0103; FHL microfilm: 1374662.
Alvin D Beggsy 66 widower, father-in-law to Edward Hoskinson and wife Cora (Beggs)

9 Aug 1916 CW pension material listed Cora Hoskinson as next of kin